Y. Guo, C. Wassgren, B. Hancock, W. Ketterhagen, J. Curtis. *Granular shear flows of flat disks and elongated rods with and without friction*

**Physics of Fluids**, 2013-05-01

Abstract: Granular shear flows of flat disks and elongated rods are simulated using the Discrete Element Method. The effects of particle shape, interparticle friction, coefficient of restitution, and Young’s modulus on the flow behavior and solid phase stresses have been investigated. Without friction, the stresses decrease as the particles become flatter or more elongated due to the effect of particle shape on the motion and interaction of particles. In dense flows, the particles tend to have their largest dimension aligned in the flow direction and their smallest dimension aligned in the velocity gradient direction, such that the contacts between the particles are reduced. The particle alignment is more significant for flatter disks and more elongated rods. The interparticle friction has a crucial impact on the flow pattern, particle alignment, and stress. Unlike in the smooth layer flows with frictionless particles, frictional particles are entangled into large masses which rotate like solid bodies under shear. In dense flows with friction, a sharp stress increase is observed with a small increase in the solid volume fraction, and a space-spanning network of force chains is rapidly formed with the increase in stress. The stress surge can occur at a lower solid volume fraction for the flatter and more elongated particles. The particle Young’s modulus has a negligible effect on dilute and moderately dense flows. However, in dense flows where the space-spanning network of force chains is formed, the stress depends strongly on the particle Young’s modulus. In shear flows of non-spherical particles, the stress tensor is found to be symmetric, but anisotropic with the normal component in the flow direction greater than the other two normal components. The granular temperature for the non-spherical particle systems consists of translational and rotational temperatures. The translational temperature is not equally partitioned in the three directions with the component in the flow direction greater than the other two. The rotational temperature is less than the translational temperature at low solid volume fractions, but may become greater than the translational temperature at high solid volume fractions.